Bushfire Attack Level (BAL) Rating for Owner Builders - VIC - Owner Builder Club

Bushfire Attack Level (BAL) Rating for Owner Builders – VIC

BAL Rating VIC

If you're an owner builder in Victoria, or even just someone interested in residential building, you've come to the right place. We're going to chat about something that's not only important but crucial if you're building in our beautiful but sometimes bushfire prone region – the Bushfire Attack Level (BAL) Rating for Owner Builders – VIC.

Now, you might be thinking, “What's this BAL Rating all about?” Well, it's a way of measuring the potential exposure a building could face during a bushfire. And trust me, understanding this is as vital as knowing the right amount of cement to mix with your sand.

So, let's dive into this journey together, exploring the ins and outs of the Bushfire Attack Level (BAL) Rating. It's not just about ticking off a box in a long list of building requirements; it's about crafting homes that are safe, secure, and sturdy, standing tall amidst nature's fieriest tests.

Ready? Let's get started!

Victoria and Bushfires

If you've lived here for a while, you'd know that we share a bit of a love-hate relationship with these fiery natural phenomena.

They're part of our landscape, shaping our environment, but they also bring along their fair share of challenges, especially when it comes to homes and properties.

Victoria has a long history of grappling with catastrophic bushfires. Some of the most devastating ones include the Black Saturday bushfires of 2009, which resulted in widespread devastation and the greatest loss of life from fire since colonisation.

These fires serve as a stark reminder of how quickly a bushfire can turn a beautiful landscape into an inferno.

Why is Victoria Prone to Bushfires?

Well, it's a combination of factors. The climate, vegetation, and weather patterns all play a role. 

Summers in Victoria can get pretty hot and dry, creating perfect conditions for bushfires to ignite and spread. Add to this the abundance of eucalyptus trees, which are known to burn easily and intensely, and you've got yourself a bushfire-prone environment.

As an owner builder, it's essential to learn from these past incidents. Understanding the bushfire risks and taking proactive measures in your building design and construction can make a world of difference. It's not just about protecting your investment; it's about ensuring the safety of those who will call your property ‘home'.

In the next sections, we'll dive deeper into what you can do to mitigate these risks by understanding and implementing the BAL Rating. Trust me, it's not as daunting as it sounds!

Bushfire Attack Level (BAL) Rating for Owner Builders – VIC

Alright, let's dive into the meat and potatoes of our discussion – the Bushfire Attack Level (BAL) Rating. If you're building in Victoria, this little acronym is going to be your new best friend.

So, what's the BAL Rating all about?

It's a measure used to determine the potential exposure of a building to bushfire attacks. This includes things like ember attacks, radiant heat, or direct flame contact. The higher the BAL rating, the higher the risk, and the more stringent the construction requirements.

BAL Rating System Levels VIC

The BAL rating system has six levels:


This is the lowest level on the scale, indicating that there's insufficient risk to warrant specific construction requirements. However, it's still essential to have a fire safety plan in place because no risk is zero risk.


This level signifies a low risk but with the potential for a significant ember attack. Homes built under this BAL may need to incorporate some specific construction methods to address the risk.


Here, the risk increases slightly, with homes potentially exposed to increasing levels of ember attack and burning debris ignited by windborne embers, and a likelihood of exposure to radiant heat.


This level indicates a moderate risk from embers burning debris and increasing levels of radiant heat. The construction requirements become more rigorous at this level.


At this level, homes are at high risk, with potential exposure to embers and debris, increased levels of radiant heat, and a chance of direct exposure to flames. The building requirements here are quite stringent.

BAL-FZ (Flame Zone)

This is the highest level on the BAL rating system, indicating an extreme risk of bushfire attack from embers, radiant heat, and direct contact with flames. Homes in this zone must adhere to the most rigorous building standards to withstand potential bushfire attacks.

In Victoria, the BAL rating isn't just a good-to-know; it's a must-know. It directly influences building regulations and requirements. Depending on your BAL rating, you might have specific obligations relating to things like site preparation, vegetation management, and even the type of windows you can install.

How to Get a BAL Rating

So, how do you get a BAL rating?

It's usually determined by a qualified assessor who takes into account factors such as your region, the type of vegetation around your property, the slope of the land, and the distance between your building and any vegetation.

This assessment forms part of your planning application process.

A valuable resource for more information is the VIC Department of Transport and Planning – click here to head to the site.

Understanding the Impact of BAL Rating

The Bushfire Attack Level (BAL) Rating doesn't just determine how you build your home – it shapes what your home will look like, what materials it will be made from, and how it interacts with the surrounding landscape. Let's take a closer look at how this works.

At the heart of the BAL Rating's influence is the concept of ‘defendable space'. This is an area around your home that's managed to reduce the bushfire hazard. As your BAL Rating increases, so does the extent of this defendable space.

This can influence various aspects of your home design. For instance, if you're building in a BAL-40 zone, your home might need to have enclosed eaves, window screens, and seals around doors and windows to prevent embers from entering. You may also need to use non-combustible materials for your walls and roof.

In the highest risk category, BAL-FZ (Flame Zone), the requirements are even more stringent. Here, you might need to install bushfire shutters, use specially designed vents that prevent ember attacks and use toughened glass for windows.


These measures might seem rigorous, but they come with significant benefits. The most obvious one is increased safety. Homes built to higher BAL standards are more resistant to bushfire attacks, providing a safer environment for occupants during a bushfire event.

But there's another potential advantage that's often overlooked – insurance. Some insurance companies may offer more favourable terms if your home complies with the relevant BAL requirements. This can translate into lower premiums or broader coverage.

In essence, adhering to BAL Ratings isn't just about compliance – it's about creating a home that's resilient, safe, and potentially more cost-effective in the long run.

Wrapping Things Up

So, there you have it! We've taken a good stroll through the world of Bushfire Attack Level Ratings. It might seem like a lot to digest, but trust me, getting your head around this system is totally worth it if you're planning to build a home here in our beautiful, yet bushfire prone, Victoria.

But hey, the real takeaway here is not just about following rules or ticking off a regulatory checklist. Adhering to the BAL Ratings means you're doing your best to keep your home and family safe.

So, as you embark on your owner-builder journey in Victoria, remember that understanding and implementing the BAL Rating is like crafting a resilient shield for your dream home. It's more than just building a house – it's about creating a sanctuary that's ready to stand tall against nature's challenges.

Now, isn't that a comforting thought?

Frequently Asked Questions

What happens if my building is more than 100m from any classified vegetation?

If your building is farther than 100m from any classified vegetation, the BAL rating will be BAL-LOW and won't require any special construction considerations related to bushfire risk.

Are all new homes in bushfire prone areas required to meet a minimum BAL Rating?

Yes, under current regulations, all new homes in designated bushfire-prone areas are required to be built to a minimum BAL 12.5. This ensures a basic level of ember protection for your home.

Do alterations and additions to existing homes need to comply with bushfire standards?

Absolutely! In Victoria, not only new domestic buildings but also alterations and additions must comply with bushfire standards.

Do I need a BAL assessment before applying for planning or building permits?

Yes, all new homes and additions must undergo a BAL assessment before any planning or building permits can be issued. 

Can I build a private bushfire shelter on my property?

Yes, you can. However, it's crucial to note that private bushfire shelters should be a place of last resort during a bushfire and must adhere to strict building regulations. Always have a bushfire survival plan in place.

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