Bushfire Attack Level (BAL) Rating for Owner Builders - WA - Owner Builder Club

Bushfire Attack Level (BAL) Rating for Owner Builders – WA

BAL Rating WA

Interesting in learning more about the term ‘Bushfire Attack Level' or BAL Rating WA? Or maybe wondering what the fuss is all about? Well, you've come to the right place. Let's unravel this mystery together.

You see, a BAL rating is a way to measure the potential exposure your property might have to a bushfire. Think of it as a scale that tells you how intense a bushfire could get if one were to occur.

Now, if you're an owner builder in Western Australia (WA), this is where you want to pay extra attention. Knowing your BAL rating isn't just a nice-to-have; it's a must-have.

Why? Because it directly influences your building requirements and design considerations when constructing a new home.

In other words, understanding your BAL rating helps ensure that your dream home is not just beautiful, but also built to withstand potential bushfire attacks. It's all about keeping you, your family, and your investment safe.

And let's face it, that's pretty important, wouldn't you agree?

The Basics of a BAL Assessment

Picture this: You've got your eye on a plot of land for your dream home. It's beautiful, it's spacious, but it's also more than 100 metres away from any bushfire-prone vegetation. That's where a Bushfire Attack Level (BAL) assessment comes into play. Think of it as your roadmap to understanding just how at risk you might be from bushfires.

So, what exactly is a BAL assessment?

In its simplest form, it's a process that helps figure out the BAL for a building or a proposed building that's at low risk of getting caught in a bushfire.

Basically, if your property is a good distance away from any bushfire-loving plants, this assessment is your go-to.

Now, these assessments aren't just pulled out of thin air. They're prepared following a certain set of guidelines called the Simplified Procedure (Method 1) of Australian Standard 3959 Construction of Buildings in Bushfire-Prone Areas (AS 3959).

And yes, this includes Amendments No. 1, 2, and 3. This report gives you your BAL rating, and with that, a better understanding of the potential bushfire risks linked to your property.

Here's something to keep in mind. If you're an owner builder about to submit a development application, and your site is in a designated bushfire-prone area, you can use a BAL assessment (basic) report under a couple of conditions:

  1. Your site and the surrounding area are as clear as a summer's day since the latest release of the Map of Bush Fire Prone Areas was published. This means there are more than 100 metres between any bushfire-prone vegetation and your building or proposed building.
  2. The site is known to be bushfire-prone, but the land is large enough to place your building or proposed building more than 100 metres away from any bushfire-prone vegetation.

Decoding the BAL Ratings

Alright, let's get into the nitty-gritty of BAL ratings. Think of them as different levels in a video game – each one represents a step up in difficulty, or in this case, bushfire risk.

  1. BAL-Low: This is the entry point on our bushfire risk scale. It signifies a minimal risk that doesn't necessitate specific construction requirements. Still, it's vital to remain cautious and vigilant, as even low-risk areas can experience changes in conditions.
  2. BAL-12.5: A step up on the scale, BAL-12.5 indicates a slight increase in risk. At this level, properties could be exposed to ember attack and wind borne burning debris, along with some heat exposure. To mitigate this risk, incorporating fire-resistant materials in the building design is recommended.
  3. BAL-19: This rating signifies a moderate risk from embers, burning debris ignited by wind, increasing heat exposure, and potential exposure to flames. Enhanced construction elements are required to improve a building's resistance to fire.
  4. BAL-29: Moving higher on the risk scale, BAL-29 represents a high risk. At this level, buildings could face an increased attack from burning embers, wind borne debris, and heightened heat exposure. There's also an increased likelihood of exposure to flames. More robust construction methods are necessary for this rating to withstand potential bushfire attacks.
  5. BAL-40: Reaching BAL-40 means there's a very high risk. Properties at this level may encounter increased exposure to ember attacks, burning debris, and a higher likelihood of direct exposure to flames. Buildings must be constructed using a comprehensive set of protective measures to resist fire impact.
  6. BAL-FZ (Flame Zone): This is the highest level on the BAL scale, indicating an extreme risk. Buildings could face direct exposure to flames from the firefront, along with extreme heat and ember attacks. Construction requirements are the most stringent at this level, requiring maximum fire resistance in the building's design.

Steps and Methods to Assess Your Property's BAL Rating

Determining your property's BAL rating involves several steps:

  1. Understand the vegetation type around your property: Different types of vegetation pose different levels of fire risk. Classify the vegetation into one of the seven categories defined by Australian Standards.
  2. Measure the distance between your property and the classified vegetation: This measurement helps determine the potential heat impact on your property in case of a bushfire.
  3. Evaluate the slope on your property: The angle of the land can affect the speed and intensity of an approaching bushfire.
  4. Consider the Fire Danger Index (FDI) in your region: The FDI is a measure of the fire weather conditions in your area, which can influence the likelihood and severity of a bushfire.
  5. Combine all these factors to calculate your BAL rating: Using all the data collected, you can estimate your BAL rating. However, for an accurate assessment, it's recommended to consult a professional.

Click here for the WA Government's Bushfire Fact Sheet.

Importance of Professional Assessment

While a preliminary assessment can give you an idea of your property's BAL rating, a professional assessment ensures accuracy. Professionals have the expertise to consider all factors, including those that might be overlooked in a DIY assessment. They also stay updated with changes in standards and regulations. Thus, a professional assessment not only provides an accurate BAL rating but also ensures your property's compliance with local building codes and regulations.

Impact of BAL Rating on Building Construction

BAL ratings significantly influence the design and construction of new buildings. Higher BAL ratings require more stringent construction methods to mitigate the increased risk. For instance, materials used in construction should have higher fire resistance. In addition, the design may need to incorporate protective features like ember guards and fire-resistant seals.

Case Study: Impact of BAL Ratings on Bushfire in WA

Recently, Western Australia has been the victim of fast-moving bushfires that have caused extensive damage. Three homes were destroyed in a suburb in Perth's hilly east due to a fire that started from Parkerville, while another fire in the Keysbrook area was described as out of control and burning rapidly to the east.

The recent bushfires in WA offer valuable lessons. First and foremost, the importance of regular maintenance around properties cannot be overstated. Clearing vegetation and removing potential fire hazards can help manage the risk of bushfires.

Moreover, the events highlight the need for continuous updates to BAL ratings. In areas prone to bushfires, regular assessments can ensure that the rating remains accurate and that the necessary protective measures are in place.

Lastly, the importance of community preparedness is also underscored. Having evacuation plans, maintaining communication within the community, and staying updated about the local fire danger levels are crucial steps towards ensuring safety during such events.

Precautions for the future involve better planning, building designs that cater to the highest BAL ratings in high-risk areas, and constant vigilance during bushfire season. The role of local authorities in enforcing BAL rating compliance and providing guidance to homeowners is also vital.


Embrace the role of an informed owner builder. Be proactive in assessing your property's BAL rating. Remember, this isn't just about compliance with building codes; it's about creating a safe haven for you and your loved ones.

The process may seem daunting at first, filled with complicated terms and calculations. But remember, every step you take towards understanding your property's BAL rating is a step towards ensuring its resilience against bushfires.

So, get started today. Consult with professionals, understand your property's unique risk factors, and let this knowledge guide the creation of your dream home.

The peace of mind that comes with knowing your home is built to resist bushfire threats? That's priceless.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is a bushfire-prone area?

A bushfire-prone area is an area identified as being subject to, or likely to be subject to, a bushfire attack. These areas are designated by the Fire and Emergency Services (FES) Commissioner.

How is a bushfire-prone area determined?

A bushfire-prone area is determined based on the vegetation types and their arrangement within 100 metres of a proposed building. This includes both the vegetation on the property and the adjacent properties.

What is the purpose of the Bushfire Prone Area Maps?

The Bushfire Prone Area Maps provide people with information about whether their property is in a declared bushfire-prone area. This helps homeowners and builders understand their obligations under the Building Code of Australia.

For more information, click here to head to the Department of Fire and Emergency Services website.

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